Madrid, the Capital of Spain, is the third-largest city in the EU and has nearly 3.2 million inhabitants (with a metro area population of approximately 6.5 million). Madrid’s energy consumption amounts to approximately 5.5% of Spain’s total consumption, and the city’s GHG emissions comprise 5% of national totals. As one of the 28 member states of the European Union, Spain’s Nationally Determined Contributions aim to help reduce the EU’s emissions by 80-95% by 2050, compared to 1990 levels. Madrid’s Urban Mobility Plan integrates all currently-implemented urban transport measures, by promoting biofuels and clean-energy vehicles.
The Spanish Climate Change and Clean Energy Strategy (EECCEL), part of the Spanish Sustainable Development Strategy (EEDS), aims to ensure the reduction of GHG emissions and boost sustainable development across Spain. The Coordination Committee for Climate Change Policies (CCPCC) was created in order to coordinate Climate Change Policies, after Spain ratified the Kyoto protocol in 2002. This Committee serves as an advisory body, which coordinates between the Central Administration and local authorities, as well as between public administrators, non-governmental organizations, and researchers. The Strategic Plan for Infrastructure and Transport (PEIT) (2005-2020) is also in development.
The bulk (94.5%) of Madrid’s CO2 emissions originate in the transport, residential, and waste sectors. The transport sector alone is responsible for 53% of direct emissions and 36% of total emissions from the municipality of Madrid. Road transport contributes the highest volume of GHG emissions in Madrid: 31.5% of direct emissions in 2014. From 1999 to 2014, total GHG emissions in Madrid diminished by 27% while direct emissions were reduced by 21.88%. Madrid is currently reducing the intensity of private motor vehicle traffic by promoting public transport and encouraging pedestrian and bicycle mobility modes. Furthermore, AENA has set up a Carbon Management Plan for the period of 2016-2021, which aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from activities stemming from Madrid’s two airports.
Madrid aims to reduce the use of private cars by introducing tax incentives for clean-energy vehicles and gradually restricting access and parking for highly-polluting vehicles. Low-emission vehicles will accordingly enjoy prioritized access and parking, along with electric charging networks in public spaces (in accordance with Directive 2014/94). A 2017-2020 investment program is spearheading the renewal of the fleet of buses in Madrid, through the large-scale acquisition of 750 new natural gas, hybrid, and electric buses. The Madrid city government announced the plan for a ‘low emission zone’ in the city centre in 2018, open only to resident’s vehicles, taxis and deliveries, to be functioning by 2025. Madrid plans for a 100% low-emission bus fleet by 2020, all new electric taxis or low-emission vehicles from 2018, and the introduction of incentives for parking for electric and low-emission vehicles from 2018 to 2025.  As of 2018, taxis in the city can be replaced only by vehicles with a ZERO or ECO label. Madrid’s road and bus networks will be optimized for efficiency, in order to reduce the cruising time and distance of empty passenger vehicles. Many of these renewable mobility actions are included under the “Madrid Regenerates” Project. Currently, Madrid enjoys an e-bike-share system called BiCiMAD, which includes over 2000 electric bicycles and 165 charging stations across the city. Madrid’s Car2Go car-sharing system employs a fleet of exclusively clean-energy vehicles.
 http://www.airclim.org/acidnews/madrid-halve-traffic-emissions-2030  http://urbanaccessregulations.eu/countries-mainmenu-147/spain/madrid  “Plan A: Air quality and climate change plan for the city of Madrid.”  “Plan A: Air quality and climate change plan for the city of Madrid.”  “Sustainable Urban Mobility. Shared Mobility in Madrid,” IMSD International Master in Sustainable Development and Corporate Responsibility, 28 January 2017, https://www.eoi.es/blogs/imsd/sustainable-urban-mobility-shared-mobility-in-madrid/.