In its NDCs Guatemala plans to achieve a reduction of 11.2% of its total GHG emissions from the 2005 base year projected to 2030. This reduction of 11.2% means that emissions in a baseline scenario (BAU) of 53.85 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for the year 2030, will be reduced to a value of 47.81 million tons of CO2 equivalent in that year. Guatemala raises a more ambitious reduction than the above, of up to 22.6% of total GHG emissions from the 2005 base year projected to 2030. This reduction of 22.6% means that emissions in a baseline scenario (BAU) of 53.85 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for the year 2030, would be reduced to a value of 41.66 million tons of CO2 equivalent in that year. As a condition to achieve this ambitious goal, it will be necessary to have the needed technical and financial support from new and additional international public and private resources. The land-use change and forestry sector is the leading source of emissions, followed by the energy, and agriculture sectors respectively. Guatemala emitted 40 million metric tons (MtCO2e) in 2011, with the land-use change and forestry sector contributing 40 percent to overall emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions grew by 38 percent from 1990 - 2011 with significant contribution from the land-use change and forestry, energy and agriculture sectors. Guatemala’s efforts to reduce its GHG emission levels in 2030 would amount to approximately 47.81 MtCO2e instead of the current BAU projected 53.58 MtCO2e. With technical and financial support an expected 22.6% reduction can be achieved – this would cap its 2030 emissions at 41.66 MtCO2e. The sectors of health; coastal marine zones; agriculture, livestock, and food security; and forest resources have been identified as the priority sectors for adaptation efforts. Between 1990 and 2005, GHG emissions in Guatemala increased by more than 140% - 2018 data indicates that Guatemala emits more GHG than it absorbs.
Transportation: Guatemalan society has been faced with many transportation problems over the last decades. In 2017, the ministry of infrastructure and housing launched the construction of a Rail transport system to help address the problems related to long bus trips and minimise traffic jams. Efforts include the modernisation of Guatemala City’s transportation system by constructing the urban electric train system for passengers. This system will have 20 stations and 34 trains and will be able to move in five sectors of 21 kilometres.
Policy Process in Guatemala
Guatemala is the biggest economy in Central America and home to a population of 16 million people. In 2017, Guatemala ranked 9thoverall for countries that produced the most CO2 per capita. It also has the highest inequality rates in the world – with only 8% of the population having access to electricity. In 2018, the Ministry of Energy and Mines launched its National Energy Plan, which includes mitigation actions in energy supply, industry, transportation and firewood use with an aim to reduce up to 29 % of energy sector GHG emissions by 2032. The overarching aims of the energy plan are to improve the use of renewable resources, create efficiency and energy savings, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Included in the plan are efforts to increase the use of renewable energy resources, such as geothermal, wind, solar and hydroelectricity. In 2016, approximately 58% of the country’s energy generation was achieved from using renewable energy sources with hydropower producing the most energy. The energy plan’s goal is to produce 64% of power from renewable energy sources, a 6% increase. Although, around 70% of the population uses firewood for cooking, and burning wood for fuel accounts for 55% of the total energy use. About one-third of Guatemalans depend on natural resources for their livelihoods, and that natural resource base is already degraded by overexploitation, deforestation, and slash-and-burn agricultural practices.
Higher temperatures and more variable rainfall will further hamper productivity, increasing the risk of food and water insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Climate change will increase disaster risks in rapidly urbanizing areas with highly unstable physical infrastructure, such as in the highlands (vulnerable to landslides) and Pacific coastal regions (vulnerable to flooding and storm surge from severe weather).
Three policy instruments exist that support Guatemala moving towards its climate goals: the Paris Climate Agreement, the related emission reduction target plan, and the National Climate Change Action Plan. The energy plan also proposes that the production of 100 000 firewood saving stoves to improve the efficiency of firewood consumption form 8 to 48% - reducing wood consumption by over 15 million tons by 2032 and reducing deforestation and pressure on natural landscapes – ultimately contributing to a 203,715 ton less GHG emissions by 2032.
Mobility in San Juan Compala
San Juan Comalapa
The municipality has an estimated population of 47,700 inhabitants living in an area of 76 km2. It is located at an altitude of 2,150 meters above sea level. Its urban area is located in a small valley surrounded by agricultural plains and hills, as well as forest.
Mobility in San Juan Comalapa The main mean of transportation in San Juan Comalapa is minibuses that transport people and light loads to specific places, especially to rural communities. In the city centre, an important share of the trips is done by tuck-tucks, followed by bicycles. However, the use of motorcycles has increased significantly in the past years. Tuck-tucks have an estimated demand of 6,700 passengers per day, equivalent to 37.6% of the population of the city center. It is estimated that one unit transfers 67 passengers daily. The tuck-tucks operate like taxis, providing a door-to-door service. With respect to the age of tuck-tucks in San Juan Comalapa, approximately 25% of them have more than 10 years of operation. These units, due to their activity, have increased their emissions significantly, exceeding the standards. Thus, the Municipality plans to replace these tuck-tukcs with zero emissions ones.
Electric Mobility in San Juan Compala
San Juan Comalapa is one of the 9 municipalities selected by Euroclima+ to implement pilot e-mobility projects at the city level. Currently, National Urban Mobility policies and programmes (NUMPs) and Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) are being conceived.
The proposed pilot project is the replacement of passenger tuck-tucks with electric ones, as well as the introduction of e-tuck tucks in the waste management system for the collection and transportation of waste in inaccessible roads. This project, which aims to be implemented in 20 months, will contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions and thus to the mitigation goals set by Guatemala in its NDC. The specific objectives of the project are:
Provide e-tuk-tuk service to the elderly and disabled population of the municipality of San Juan Comalapa, which are currently unattended.
Collect and transport solid waste in inaccessible sectors with e-tuck-tucks that includes a collector module with three compartments to encourage the population to separate at the source.
Replace tuk-tuks that exceeded their useful life and are in poor condition with electric three-wheelers to avoid GHG emissions.
Promote the use of e-tuck-tucks as a sustainable means of urban mobility.
The implementation of the Project "E-tuk-tucks for social transport, cargo transportation and replacement of units in the municipality of San Juan Comalapa" is estimated to have a cost of € 300,000.00. The three-wheelers to be purchased (50 units) will be distributed as follows: transport to seniors and disabled (10 units); waste collection and transport (13 units); and replacement of old units in poor condition (27 units).
Programme of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) financed by the German Federal Ministry for Environmental, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safet