Nationally determined commitments (NDCs) On the 29 of September 2015, Uruguay (the Oriental Republic of Uruguay) committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 when compared by base year 1990 in CO2 by 57% in CH4, 48% in N20 (unconditional), and 29% in CO2, 59% in CH4, 52% in N2O (conditional). It also includes specific objectives related to Food Production (beef) and Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF). Agriculture is a key part of Uruguay’s economy, representing 70% of all its exports. This sector also contributes to 80% of Uruguay’s GHG emissions, of which 55% are from enteric fermentation. Approximately 65% of Uruguay’s land is covered by natural grasslands and pastureland – sequestering carbon in soils and biomass is done where possible. Reduction in GHG emissions in the agriculture sector is well represented in Uruguay’s NDCs where a clear commitment to adopt to a low-carbon growth agenda with ambitious targets that address both climate change mitigation and adaptation. This intends to sustain Uruguay’s key sector of cattle farming for meat exportation – but evolving into a environmentally responsible meat producer. Uruguay set a specific target in the NDCs submitted to the UNFCCC for the agriculture sector to reduce enteric methane emissions intensity per kilogram of beef (live-weight) by 33% to 46% in 2030 through the widespread application of improved practices and technologies.
Transportation in Uruguay Uruguay capital city, Montevideo, has been investing heavy in upgrading and evolving its transportation within the city. Montevideo administrators have committed to improve and modernise its public transportation system – especially focussing on electrification and digital transformation.
Policy Process in Uruguay
Because of its small territory and the low level of industrialization, the contribution of Uruguay to the generation of global warming is not significant. It has an economy based primarily on the use of natural resources. Therefore, however, Uruguay's vulnerability to climate change is high. The vulnerability is influenced by certain factors of geography. Part of the country is located on the coast Rio de la Plata, a large natural variability, downstream of a large basin, which is impacted by the activities and efforts carried out in several regions covering the basin. Also subject to the effects of complex ocean- earth-atmosphere system in the Southwest Atlantic, these facts contribute to its natural variability. The sectors most exposed and sensitive to climate change and variability in Uruguay are the water and sewage systems, the power system, transportation and telecommunications, construction materials and recreation spaces, green infrastructure, ecosystem services, and social and health services.Approximately 70% of the population lives in coastal areas. The total population is 3,380,177 inhabitants. The rate of population growth (0.6%) was one of the lowest in the Americas since the 1960s. The area is 175,016 km2, with approximately 140,000 km2 territorial sea, islands and waters of the rivers and lagoons surrounding.
Environmental policy in Uruguay is based on Section 47 of the Uruguayan Constitution, Law number 17,283 (Environmental General Law), Law 16, 466 and its regulatory decree number 349.005. Uruguay is one of the four developing countries in the World to have submitted two national communications to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), indicating strong commitment by the government for addressing climate change across sectors. Agriculture (including land use change and forestry) is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the country and it is also one of the most important sectors in the economy, representing 65 percent of the county's export sources. Significant steps have been made in reforestation and carbon sequestration in the country, reducing the net effect of the sector on total GHG emissions. Given that the emissions reduction potential of the sector is large, carbontrading opportunities have not yet been explored in the country. Reducing vulnerability to climate change and, in particular, to seasonal variability and variations in precipitation is of increasing importance in the agricultural sector (and, particular, for water management), coupled with more sustainable land management practices and production decisions
Mobility in Montevideo
Urban transport in Montevideo characterised by a collective of public transport (buses), private vehicles (cars and taxis) and non-motorised modes. The operation of the transportation sector in Montevideo is formalised and highly concentrated – no illegal buses and other transport Montevideo has developed a mobility plan 2020 that seeks to encourage and develop sustainable transportation within the city. Part of this plan is to modernise and upgrade the transportation sector in Montevideo by focussing on digital transformation and electrification of the transport sector. In 2015, Montevideo was characterised as very concentrated and formalised supply of public transport that was provided by five bus companies that served about one million passengers per day. The city’s mobility plan 2008-2020 envisioned a development of a network of segregated bus routes to streamline and rationalise public transport since the city’s transportation system has lacks dedicated infrastructure to give public transport priority over other modes and has not adapted to demand, with over-supply in some areas and poor frequency and coverage in others.