E-bike Sharing Bike sharing schemes can be defined as the shared use of a bike fleet that enables system users to gain “as-needed” access to the benefits of using bikes, without the costs and responsibilities of owning one (Guo et al., 2017& Shaheen, et al., 2010). Bike sharing schemes are intended to provide rapid and flexible mobility for short distance trips (Transport Canada, n.d.). Bike sharing schemes can directly replace short trips – occasional or regular in nature - which would have been made using low occupancy vehicles (i.e. cars) and complement public transit by enabling easier access to transit stations (Fishman, 2013; Matrai & Toh, 2016). Such a mobility management scheme intends to reduce the use of cars, which in turn can reduce urban congestion, vehicle-kilometres travelled, energy consumption, and the emissions of harmful substances such as air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Over the past few years, there has been a rapid increase in the number of bike sharing schemes globally, particularly with the emergence of the dockless models. Midgely (2011) estimates that in 2001, there were only five bike sharing schemes in five countries. 2008, there were only 213 schemes globally. He estimates that in 2011, there were 375 bike sharing systems in 33 countries. As of November 2016, the “Bike Sharing World Map” website estimates that there are 1,442 schemes with 17.6 million bikes globally. The website includes schemes that utilize docking stations, as well as the newer dockless ones. Electric bikes are an attractive addition to bikeshare systems as they can address barriers related to bikeshare use, particularly in relation to effort exertion (electric bikes require 24% less energy than regular bike) (Langford et al., 2017), navigating through difficult topography, as well as the reduced need for showering. Several electric bike sharing systems have been launched recently in Europe (i.e. Uber Jump in Berlin, Madrid BiciMAD), USA (New York Citi Bike, San Francisco Ford GoBike). Pedal-assisted electric bikes, which requires the user to pedal to activate the electric motor, are normally used in such electric bike sharing schemes. New York City, for example, recently approved rules for such, but has mandated that throttle-based electric bikes, which can run without pedalling – to remain illegal (Fitzsimmons, 2018). Pedal-assist bikes employed in such bike sharing schemes can weight up to 80 pounds, but can run 14-20 mph (Morgan, 2017). Payment schemes vary, as some sharing schemes have annual subscription fees, while others use time-based fee structures.
E-car SharingTransport-related emissions is partially determined by vehicular activity, which is a function of vehicle ownership, and usage. On-demand transport services can be considered as “sharing economy” platforms which enable the utilization of idle assets and contribute towards preventing the additional acquisition of similar assets, in this case, vehicles (Greenblatt and Shaheen, 2015 p.77). Martin and Shaheen (2011) observe that car sharing has resulted in reductions in vehicle ownership levels for a sample of car sharing app users in the United States, and in Canada. Martin and Shaheen (2011), as well as Clewlow et al. (2016), state that a quarter of vehicle-kilometres that would have occurred through personal driving are avoided through car sharing. While overall personal driving activity can be reduced through such services, such avoided vehicular activity is transferred towards on-demand transport vehicles and should be accounted for. “Dead-heading,” which refers to the portions of the trips where there are no passengers, has been identified as a significant issue for on-demand transport vehicles (Schaller, 2017 p.2). Henao (2017) observes that for every hundred passenger-miles performed by on-demand transport vehicles, sixty-nine extra miles were driven due to dead-heading. Martin and Shaheen (2011) found that users of car sharing platforms have exhibited increased proportions of public transport modes against total trips. A more recent study by Rayle et al. (2016) emphasizes that while such services can complement public transport by enabling easier access to public transport stations, these services can also take away trips from public transport, particularly if the transit system is overcrowded (Rayle et al., 2016). Clewlow et al. (2016) also suggests that the claim that on-demand transport services complement public transportation needs to be contextualized, and that factors such as demographics, and the type and availability public transport services are key in determining whether on-demand transport will substitute or complement public transport.
E-cargo CyclesIncreasing incomes, coupled with innovative trends in facilitating modern electronic shopping, are further driving the demand for urban freight. The increasing need to perform last mile deliveries on already congested urban roads is putting more pressure into the transport system. Innovative, and cleaner means of delivering goods and parcels, such as cargo bikes, are becoming more popular. Cargo bikes are often enhanced by electric-assisted drivetrains and possess suitable characteristics for commercial urban freight operations such as lower operating costs, lesser driver fatigue, increased payloads, without sacrificing efficiency and speed. Cargo bikes have a big potential for becoming significant modes for urban freight movement. CycleLogistics, for example, estimates that one-fourth of all goods (half of light goods) can be handled by cargo bikes. A study done in the City of Graz, Greece, shows that more than a third of the vehicle-kilometres driven for delivering goods can be transferred to bikes equating to 26,000 tons of CO2 saved. In Berlin, Jorna and Mallens (2013) estimates that up to 85% of vehicle trips done by courier services can be replaced by electric-assist bikes. The Cyclelogistics Project estimates that 51% of all motorized goods-related trips in European Cities can be substituted with cargo bikes. More importantly, the shift from conventional urban goods vehicles towards such bikes require minimal infrastructure investments. The use of electric cargo bikes can potentially address specific logistics needs as it is positioned well between conventional human-powered bikes, and light cargo vehicles in terms of payloads, range and costs (Lens & Riehle, 2013). Commercial urban bike cargo operations can be done using different contracting models. For example, in Germany, such courier logistics companies have freelance messengers who are contracted on a commission basis. A similar model is being employed in Sydney, wherein cyclists can go to a “courier hub,” pick-up items for delivery, and get paid per delivery made. Electric cargo bike operations can also be integrated within the company operations as done by Vert chez Vous, a company in Paris, which utilizes a barge as a “moving warehouse” that goes around the Seine river, coupled with electric cargo tricycles.