In the INDCs Egypt committed to a general goal of reaching “high CO2 mitigation levels” without indicating quantitative targets or a baseline year. Egypt’s population in 2013 amounted to 82.06 million people living over a total area of 1,010,408.87. As a net exporter of crude oil and natural gas Egypt faces numerous issues related to climate and energy. Egypt is also particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts and has adaptation issues related to desertification and water scarcity. The GHG emissions of Egypt has been growing steadily over the last decade – at an annual rate of more than 5% and its energy sector is its largest contributor to GHG emissions as a result of its dependence on fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas – carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas emitted. The percentage of GHGs emissions of the Electricity Sector relative to all energy consumption for CO2e for the base year 2005/2006 is 37.23%. The UNFCCC inventory signals that Egypt is the main emitter in North Africa of GHG, accounting to 0.52% of global emissions. In Egypt’s INDC a pathways to achieve good levels of mitigation comprehend the diffusion of locally-appropriate low-carbon energy production technologies and a reduction in energy intensity. Transport, residential use and industry oil consumption (the three main sources of energy utilization, in order) are therefore to be addressed by mitigation policies. No specific goal is set for the development of REs; a national market for carbon trading “may” be established. Some adaptation policy frameworks are set, covering mainly the problem of water scarcity and the needs of the agricultural sector. According to the presented INDC the entire cost of these general mitigation and adaptation measures amounts to USD 73 million, mostly to be provided through international assistance.
Transport Transportation is the fastest growing source of GHG emissions in the country, due to the massive use of private vehicles as a means of transportation and their low energy efficiency. The Ministry of Transport developed a strategy that includes an improvement of the public transport and the promotion of hybrid vehicles.
Policy Process in Egypt
Due to the lack of a comprehensive legislative framework for climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, Egypt’s policy on climate change appears somewhat fragmented as the initiative for climate actions is divided among government agencies. The two key figures are the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs and, within the Ministry, the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA). A National Committee of Climate Change is in place since 1997 and brings together delegates from relevant Ministries, scientists and public representatives with the purpose of coordinating actions among the various bodies. In 2010 a National Environmental, Economic and Development Study for Climate Change sought to identify the most urgent needs in terms of measures for climate change and concluded that a National Action Plan for Adaptation is needed to enact a solid strategy planning
Mobility in Cairo
Transport in Cairo comprises an extensive road network, rail system, subway system and maritime services for the more than 17 million inhabitants of the city. Cairo is the hub of almost the entire Egyptian transport network and a public transportation system that is unable to cope with the high demand of traffic. This gap has been primarily filled by private owner and operated taxis (an informal transportation mode) an the use of private vehicles. Most freight transport in Egypt is dominated by road transport with a share of 94%. The transport sector is responsible for 28% of energy consumption in Egypt and 25% of energy related CO2 emissions. The total amount of GHG emissions from the transport sector in Egypt is estimated at approximately 29million tons of CO2.
Electric Mobility in Cairo
In February 2018, Egypt's first electric vehicle charging station opened at a state-owned Wataniya gas station on the Cairo-Suez highway and during its Sustainable Transport Egypt 2018 conference, Egypt’s minister of Environment Yasmine Found stated that the ministry's target was not the advent of electric cars or vehicles in Egypt only, but to lay a foundation for this technology in the country, starting with laws in order to sustain this technology. Policy was discussed to fully shift the public transport system towards EVs going forward during this conference. In addition, the current administration has ambitions to make Egypt a qualified manufacturer in EVs for the Middle East and African region - with the Suez Canal Zone a candidate location to become a hub for this manufacturing venture. One of the main challenges faces Egypt is the registration of EVs along with customs and taxations policies for EVs. The government has exempted private electric cars from customs, while other electric vehicles are subject to 40% in customs, which hinders sustainable development operations. During November 2018, fifteen electric buses began operation in the Capital of Alexandria. The new vehicles use chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs. They are less costly in maintenance and more environment-friendly. The Alexandria Passenger Transportation Authority (APTA) operates and manages the 15 buses with expectations to help shift towards more EV public transport in the future. The number of daily passengers that use public transportation in Alexandria is almost 800,000. The transport sector’s rising fuel costs and polluting emissions is a priority among planners and policy-makers in Egypt, especially in light of the fiscal burden of fuel subsidies - EVs are seen as the most appropriate shift from both market and governance outlook. With 9.3 million vehicles in Egypt, there is an urgency for planning an alternative, which is electric mobility as confirmed by various studies.