In 2016, the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesia) pledged to reduce its emissions by 29% or 41% with international support against business-as-usual (BAU) scenario by 2030 - roughly equivalent to doubling today emissions levels). As part of its commitment Indonesia aims to meet a large share of its commitments through reductions in the forestry sector, this translates to mean that other sectors will see substantially lower relative reductions of emissions below BAU. To enable this commitment Indonesia is currently drafting a midterm development plan (RPJMN) for the period 2020 to 2024, focusing more on low-carbon development. The Sindereng Rappang wind farm is Indonesia’s first renewable energy wind plant in South Sulawesi and the largest of its Kind in Southeast Asia. This wind farm is expected to produce 75MW of electricity and can power up to 70, 000 households – it also forms part of the 35, 000 MW electricity programme. In October 2018, prior to the UNFCCC’s COP 24 Indonesia was list as one of the 16 countries out of 197 that have signed the Paris Agreement that has defined national climate action plans with ambition enough goals to meet its pledge according to a policy brief of the UN. This relates to Indonesian laying out targets, which are actually consistent with those set out in its NDCs. Transportation: Central government spending on transport increased by threefold between 2010-2016. This has enabled the country to extend its transport network capacity and improve access to some of the most remote areas. The country has a road network of about 538,000 km, of which about 47,000 km are national roads, and 1,000 km are expressways. Public transport in these cities is scarce and unreliable, with a low usage rate (5%-20% of trips). Hardly any consideration is given to non-motorized transport.
Policy Process in Indonesia
Indonesia, a vast archipelago of more than 17,500 islands, is the fourth most populous country in the world, with 261 million inhabitants, and the largest economy in Southeast Asia, with a nominal Gross Domestic Product of $933 billion. The World Bank estimates that Indonesia needs to invest more in development sound transport strategies and policies to help boost its economic growth and achieving its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In addition, the World Bank recommends that policy needs to focus on expansion and modernisation of the maritime, rail and air networks to increase transport efficiency across the nation; green public transport networks in the main urban areas including building more Bus Rapid Transit, light rail or heavy rail systems by investing in energy efficient, low-emission public transport vehicles. Developing infrastructure, policies, and communications to encourage the use of non-motorized transport, including safer corridors for pedestrians and cyclists; promoting the implementation of stricter vehicle emissions standards to improve vehicle energy efficiency; restricting private car use through the implementation of fees in heavily-congested areas; encouraging the use of electric vehicles through incentives, such as tax exemptions and the construction of a wide network of charging stations, enhancing private sector participation and limiting the role of State-Owned Enterprises to foster a more competitive environment. Indonesia has also signalled in its National Energy Policy (NEP) a target to increase renewable energy to 23% of total primary energy supply by 2025. Some specific transportation related policies have been institutionalised by Indonesia such as the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry requiring all new gasoline vehicles meet Euro 4 emission standards starting in September 2018 and all new diesel vehicles to meet Euro 4/IV emission standards starting in April 2021, replacing the current Euro 2/II emission standard requirements. As of 1 Jan 2017, diesel fuel was limited to 2500 ppm sulphur nationwide, while 500 ppm sulphur diesel is available in some jurisdictions. Indonesia has eliminated the use of leaded gasoline and is gradually tightening the sulphur content of both diesel and gasoline in line with the adopted emission standards. Legal and institutional frameworks for national and local transport policy is often vague and weak resulting in ineffective policy impact.
Mobility in Bogor
Indonesian cities face high transport related problems ranging from reduced role of public transport, high occupancy and growth of private cars. As a result traffic congestion has worsen, growing number of road fatalities related to motor vehicles and sustained noise pollution with high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. The National Medium Term Development Plan (2015-2019) (RPJMN) does emphasize urban transport as one of the priorities in the next 5 year infrastructure development, although a large number of people still rely on private cars or motorbikes for transport. There are a number of authorities and institutions dealing with transport policies and this results in an unclear responsibility understanding and challenge for transport policy development and its implementation. Know-how among technical and managerial staff is often insufficient, and organisational processes, responsibilities and duties are not well defined. Local public transport users, pedestrians and cyclists are finding travel more and more difficult, traffic congestion is becoming worse, air and noise pollution caused by vehicles is increasing, and so is the number of traffic accidents.
Electric Mobility in Bogor
Indonesia has heavily relied on fossil fuels as its main source of energy for transportation. Resulting in several negative impacts, including increasing state budget allocation towards fuel subsidy, energy sustainability issues and increase rate of CO2 emissions. With this in mind, EVs in Indonesia has yet to gain its expected and maximum traction. In response to the slow EV adoption rate, the government has set a national roadmap in the development of the automotive industry and plans to target EV penetration as much as 2.1 million units for 2-wheeler vehicles (2W) and 2,200 units for 4-wheeler vehicles (4W) by 2025. This is in line with the Indonesian government wanting to move to Low Carbon emission vehicles (LCEVs) programme.By 2025 the Indonesian government wants LCEVs to make up at least one fifth of all vehicles that are manufactured domestically. Plans are also underway to scrap a 40 percent luxury goods tax on sales of electric cars as well as drastically cut the import tax on these items from up to 40 percent (depending on exact vehicle) to 5 percent.