The United Mexican States (Mexico) has committed its Nationally Determined Contributions pathway to reduce 50% of emissions by the year 2050. Mexico has also committed two components for mitigation actions, unconditionally and conditional measures. For its Unconditional Reduction, Mexico has committed to reduce unconditional 25% of its Greenhouse Gases and Short Lived Climate Pollutants emissions (below BAU) for the year 2030. This commitment implies a reduction of 22% of GHG and a reduction of 51% of Black Carbon. This commitment implies a net emissions peak starting from 2026, decoupling GHG emissions from economic growth: emissions intensity per unit of GDP will reduce by around 40% from 2013 to 2030. Mexico’s conditional reduction sees the 25% reduction commitment expressed above could increase up to a 40% in a conditional manner, subject to a global agreement addressing important topics including international carbon price, carbon border adjustments, technical cooperation, access to low- cost financial resources and technology transfer, all at a scale commensurate to the challenge of global climate change. Within the same conditions, GHG reductions could increase up to 36%, and Black Carbon reductions to 70% in 2030.
Capital city: Mexico City
Population: 116 million
Total geographical area: 1.96 million sq. km
Economy: World’s 15th largest economy
GDP: USD1,142.5 billion (2017)
Annual Growth: 3%
Driven by this economic growth, the City of Leon has searched for best practices in terms of planning. Based in the planning model established in Curitiba by the IPPUC, in January of 1994, the first Municipal Planning Institute in Mexico (IMPLAN) was created. The IMPLAN has been guiding, over the years, the implementation of planning policies. Thanks to this policies, in 1996 the municipality has established different strategies to address problems in terms of urban development, mobility and environment. These strategies have been defined into two major components
One of the first efforts was the elaboration of the Strategic Urban Zoning Plan, from which the Integral Mobility System Program was derived. This program established the first punctual projects, which included:
These proposals and strategic guidelines were linked to policies and the Municipal Development plan. Work done by the IMPLAN was then framed by the vision that there should be continuity and political will to carry on the development strategies. In order to provide order, structure and a proper management of Public Transport System, the Mobility Department was created within the municipal structure, having to make all of the legal modifications to provide the municipality the attribution of the public transport planning, management and control (which previously was a state attribution). The sectorial authority related to the governance of transport in the city of León, is made up of various institutions and units as described below. The Sustainable Development Ministry’s mission is to promote and consolidate a culture of sustainable development in urban planning, mobility and environmental protection through the implementation of communication channels that generate the active participation of society. The Mobility Department is the agency responsible for generating policies which promote sustainable, safe, efficient, integrated and inclusive mobility. The Planning and Transportation Service Management performs technical studies concerning the operation of public transport to design and update the model of trip generation planning, establishing the improvements to be implemented. The General Municipal Transit department provides human, material and logistical resources necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the various areas of management, according to this guidelines established by the Municipal Treasury and the Department of Institutional Development. The Municipal Institute of Planning (IMPLAN) is a decentralized entity of its main functions is to establish the Municipal Development Plan, based tool for developing portfolios guiding Lion to its orderly development. Finally, the Advisory Council on Sustainable Development on Environmental, Transportation and Urban Planning, coordinates along with the Ministry of Sustainable Development in promoting the active participation of organized society on Sustainable Development on issues related to the environment, mobility and urbanism.
The city of León is the fifth largest city in Mexico. Its population reaches nearly 1.4 million people, distributed along an area of 19,823 ha. Given its geographical location, it has become an important regional development axis, communicating the central part of Mexico with the North and West, linking the most important production zones of Mexico. León itself has been a very important pole of development, with its dense industrial areas, important agricultural production and a significant and ambitious touristic program.
In terms of public transport, the city has advanced towards the consolidation of an integrated transport system and the promotion of non-motorized mobility, however, growth in demand has outstripped investment and expansion of the systems, generating a significant loss in quality of service. As a result, negative impacts are presented on public health of its inhabitants. For the last 18 years, an average of 7597 accidents occurs, causing nearly 2372 injuries (some of them resulting in a physical disability), and close to 60 deaths per year. At the same time, Leon is the seventh most polluted city in the country, representing the fifth highest in emissions of particulate matter (PM10) and third in emissions of ozone and sulfur dioxide (O3 and SO2), pollutants highly harmful to health, where 24% is originated from freight fleet and 52% comes from private car use.
In 1989 Leon drew up the PITUL (Integrated Public Transportation Plan) which, besides from the public transport system, also considered pavement management and centralized traffic control system. Nowadays, Leon is funding the implementation of both 3rd and 4th phase of the integrated transportation system. Leon was the first city in Mexico to implement an integral solution for transportation in a municipality. León is well known for the use of the bike as a mean of transport for labor and educational purposes. Trips on bikes hold 6% of the modal split (on any kind of vehicles), the great amount of bike trips lead the Municipality to elaborate the Bikeways Master Plan in 2009 The main objective is to provide a high quality public transport with fair rates and disability access standards within the infrastructure and operation aimed to promote multi-modal trips. Leon takes the development model for sustainable cities in which competitiveness and community go hand in hand. From the consolidation of a sustainable urban mobility scheme, which considers the smart urban development and integrated transport system, which together achieve improved quality of life of Leon, reducing by 28% the travel time, a 25 % decrease of road accidents and 17% of local air pollutants.
By 2030, the city of León is aiming to offer an integrated public transport system which provides greater connectivity and speed for trips within the city. At the same time, Leon’s target is to provide the most important non-motorized transport network in the country, which can encourage trips made by bike, reducing the production of pollutant emissions. Additionally, Leon’s objective is to create a network of quality public spaces in order to make a more livable environment to its inhabitants. León, since 2003, mobilizes 70% of public transport trips thanks to SIT-Optibús also has a network of cycle paths 88,5km2 long and is the only municipality that are responsible for all duties and decisions relation to public transport through the Directorate General for Mobility. Among the actions carried out in León on mobility issues are:
Integrated Public Transport System= 50 million hours saved
Bikeway network = 150 000 daily trips by bicycle
Public Spaces renewal = 880,000 daily trips on foot
Mexico city’s Bicycle-sharing system
Mexico City is one of the most congested and polluted cities in the world. For several years, the city has made a great effort to improve public transport and reduce car trips and travel times. The government knows that this benefits inhabitants’ health andreduces the strain on government health programs,traffic control, and the city’s carbon footprint. Suchinitiatives include the introduction of a BRT system in 2005, a new metro line (making it a network of 12 lines), the “No Driving Day” initiative and, most re- cently, the introduction of the Ecobici bicycle-sharing system.
The Ministry of Environment launched the Ecobici bicycle system in Mexico City in February 2010. The city installed 85 stations in a central neighbourhoodwith offices, housing and several restaurants and cafes. Citizens rapidly adopted the system, finding that it satisfied their needs for short trips and convenient connections. In the 6 years since Ecobici began, it has grown considerably. The city recently registered 35 million trips, during which users travelled 54 million kilometres. There are now 452 stations located through 42 neigh- bourhoods, an area of 32 square kilometres. Over 220,000 people use the system of 6,000 bicycles. The network connects to 35 metro stations and 54 BRT stations. Ecobici is now the largest bicycle-sharing system in Latin America.
The Ministry of Environment also launched other policies to support the use of bicycles in Mexico City. These include the Urban Cyclist Manual, and the Sunday Promenade, Move by Bike, which consists of closing roads on Sundays for cars, making them exclusive for cyclists (or other kinds of recreational uses, such as roller skating and running) and the Cycling School, which provides free cycling classes for people all ages.
Thanks to Ecobici, Mexico City reduced CO2 by 2,400 tonnes. To mitigate that amount of greenhouse gas emissions would require the planting of around 7,000 trees. The success is mainly due to citizens’ shift in transport choices. In a 2014 survey, 16% of Ecobici users said they stopped using their cars and instead hopped on a bicycle; two years earlier the figure was 5%. Some 60% said that before using the system, they never considered the bicycle as a feasible transport mode. Now they do. Users also said that riding a bicycle has a positive effect on their mental health by avoiding the stressful environment of crowded public transport or traffic. Several women also have found Ecobicycle an escape from sexual harassment, which is a common issue inMexico City ́s public transport systems.